Monday 20 September 2021

Quality One Australia


Process Mapping

 

Quality One Process Mapping

Process Mapping  Process Mapping Facilitation  Process Mapping Training

Processes and Process Mapping Processes and Process Mapping
Process Map Uses Process Map Uses
Process Mapping Symbols Process Mapping Symbols
Process Mapping Types Process Mapping Types
Process Mapping Standards Process Mapping Standards
Process Mapping Software Process Mapping Software
Capturing Process Maps Capturing Process Maps
Storing Process Maps Storing Process Maps
Process Risk and Control Process Risk and Control
Associated Process Map Documentation Metrics and Tools Associated Process Map Documentation, Metrics and Tools
Changing Process Maps Changing Process Maps

Process Mapping Home Processes and Process Mapping

At Quality One we believe the first step to process maturity is defining what it is the organisational does and capturing the steps that deliver the organisational requirements. In short, the organisation process, the process chain and the steps within those processes. Once identified process mapping captures the detail of the process which allows the organisation to then control the process, measure the process and improve the process where required.

Process mapping refers to the actions and activities involved in defining what a business entity does to deliver the requirements of the organisation and the organisations customers. It can include, who is responsible, to what standard a business process should be completed, and how the success of a process can be measured and determined. Process Mapping is the initial tool that allows the organisation and its processes to become more effective and efficient. A clear and detailed process map allows the organisational to look at whether or not improvements can be made or need to be made to the current process. Process mapping can aid in taking specific organisational objectives and goals and determining whether they can be delivered or met and helps to measure and compare the process objectives alongside the entire organization's objectives to make sure that all processes are aligned with the company's values and capabilities.

Process - Process or processing typically describes the act of taking something through an established and usually routine set of procedures to convert it from one form to another, as a manufacturing or administrative procedure, such as processing milk into cheese, or processing paperwork to grant a mortgage loan, or converting computer data from one form to another. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Process

Business Process - A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. It often can be visualized with a flowchart as a sequence of activities.Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process

A process map is a graphic representation of recognised processes usually based on a set of agreed and common standards and rules. This can be as simple as a series of instructions or as complex as a diagram that displays how all subsystems work together in one system. The process map is a tool to visually display how a work flow or activity operates. It is a tool that is used to contribute, communicate and capture the body of working knowledge (BOWK) in an organisation and is a key input into business planning and change. A process maps key elements include inputs, outputs, decisions, tasks, activities and functions that can be developed at any level within an organisation.

8D Process Mapping Example

Process Mapping Home Process Map Uses

Process definitions and process maps give an organisation a common language with which to compare processes and discover potential inefficiencies that facilitate a capability uplift in the products and services the organisation delivers. Process Mapping tools endeavor to capture the who, what, where and when of the process. All this information is important to the process and to process change. Simply mapping a process can be the first step to having a full view of the process and its implications, risk and deliverables. Often mapping a process is a secondary action to capturing the associated data to the process but is necessary to ensure control of the process and its metric data.

Process Maps have uses at all levels of oragnisational activity including

  • Strategic
    • High Level
    • Usually contain only actions or descriptors
    • Are not concerned with detail
    • Can contain sub processes that are delivered by different entities
    • Process maps can be as simple as a number of actions placed in a sequence. At a high process level only key actions are listed in the order in which they occur. These high level actions can be broken down further into subprocesses to give the process detail that can be followed at the operational and instructional level.
    Strategic Process Map
  • Operational
    • Usually linked to a higher level strategic process
    • Contains Decisions and alternate process flows
    • Potential can be broken down further to instructional
    • Is likely to have swimlanes with resources allocated to each step
    • Processes can be broken down into further detail until we reach the instructional/task level. When all action steps cannot be broken down any further we have reached the bottom of the process hierarchy.
    Operational Process Map
  • Instructional
    • Used in the execution of the process
    • Is the lowest micro level
    • Should not have any levels of process below it
    • Needs to be analysed for risk that may lead to higher level system process failure
    • Is likely to have swimlanes with resources allocated to each step

Induction Training
Induction training should be orientated toward the role being inducted. Having a process view of the organisation supported with process maps makes this possible. Process standards and process mapping standards should be part of a role specific induction training suite. Process Definition and Process Maps along with a systems view of where they fit in an induction program is an indicator of process mature organisation.
Please click for assistance on Process Mapping Facilitation

Process Mapping Home Process Mapping Symbols

Process Action

Process or action step. This is the most common symbol in both process flowcharts and business process maps. It is used at all levels of a process hierarchy.

Process Connector

Arrow/Connector. Displays the flow of action through the process. The arrow indicates the direction of inputs and outputs to process steps.

Process Decision

Decision. Indicates a question in the process flow. A decision shape can be used as binary option (Yes/No, Go/No Go) but can also be used when there are alternate answers to the question. This is usually defined in the organisational process standards.

Process Terminator

Terminators show the start and stop points in a process. When used as a Start symbol, terminators can depict a trigger action that sets the process flow into motion.

Simple is best when creating process maps. There are more symbols and types of process map. The above symbols are key.

Process Mapping Home Process Mapping Types

Flowchart

D2 Flowchart

SIPOC

SIPOC

Swimlane

Process Swimlane

Value Stream

Value Stream

Micro

Process Micro

Macro

Process Macro

Manufacturing

Process Map Manufacturing

BPMN

BPMN

Process Mapping Home Process Mapping Standards

Process Levels as part of a Process Mapping standard need to be defined within the organisation to enable a consistent approach to

  • Process Design and Development
  • Process Change
  • Process Risk Analysis
  • Organisational Training Programs
Process Levels should be designated from a Process Office within the organisation whose role is to ensure the process hierarchy is up to date.

ISO9001:2015
ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems. ISO9000 is maintained by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization and is administered by accreditation and certification bodies. The rules are updated, as the requirements motivate changes overtime. Some of the requirements in ISO 9001:2008 (which is one of the standards in the ISO 9000 family) include:
  • a set of procedures that cover all key processes in the business
  • monitoring processes to ensure they are effective
  • keeping adequate records
  • checking output for defects, with appropriate and corrective action where necessary
  • regularly reviewing individual processes and the quality system itself for effectiveness
  • facilitating continual improvement
A company or organization that has been independently audited and certified to be in conformance with ISO 9001 may publicly state that it is "ISO 9001 certified" or "ISO 9001 registered". Certification to an ISO 9001 standard does not guarantee any quality of end products and services; rather, it certifies that formalized business processes are being applied. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_9001
Business process mapping refers to activities involved in defining exactly what a business entity does, who is responsible, to what standard a process should be completed and how the success of a business process can be determined. Once this is done, there can be no uncertainty as to the requirements of every internal business process. A business process illustration is produced. The first step in gaining control over an organization is to know and understand the basic processes. (Deming, 1982; Juran, 1988; Taylor, 1911)
ISO 9001 requires a business entity to follow a process approach when managing its business, and to this end creating business process maps will assist. The entity can then work towards ensuring its processes are effective (the right process is followed the first time), and efficient (continually improved to ensure processes use the least amount of resources).Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_process_mapping
Some broadly used process mapping standards are:
  • Gilbreth
  • The first structured method for documenting process flow, the flow process chart, was introduced by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth to members of ASME in 1921 as the presentation “Process Charts, First Steps in Finding the One Best Way to Do Work”. The Gilbreths' tools found their way into industrial engineering curricula. In 1947, ASME adopted a symbol set derived from Gilbreth’s original work as the “ASME Standard: Operation and Flow Process Charts.” The symbols used and displayed on this page and their subsequent use comes from the original Gilbreth presentation and document.

    In the year 1949, flowchart began to be used for planning computer programs and quickly became one of the most popular tools in designing computer algorithms and programs. These tools are now the accepted method to capture processes within organisations.
    Gilbreth Charts

    Click here to view Process Charts by F & L Gilbreth


  • BPMN
    • BPMN provides a notation that can be readily understandable by all users
      • Business Analysts
      • Technical Developers
      • Process Operators and Managers
    • Its structure contains
      • Work Flow Elements
        • Activities, Events, Gateways, Sequence Flow
      • Organising Elements
        • Pools, Swimlanes, Groups
      • Readability Elements
        • Annotation, Links
      • Special Behaviour Elements
        • Messages, Signals, Timers, Errors, Repeaters, Correlation
    Visio BPMN

  • Value Stream Mapping
  • A value stream map consists of:
    • Everything, including non-value adding activities, that makes transformation from raw information and materials to what the customer is willing to pay for
    • Communication all along the supply chain
    • The network of processes and operations
    Value
    • Assumes that you are creating something of value that a customer is willing to pay for
    Stream
    • Refers to the sequential flow of activities needed to create work units and deliver them to the customer
    • Value stream mapping is a graphical flow of activities and work units that produce value for a customer. One of its many benefits is that it clearly identifies non-value add activities.
    Choosing a Value Stream for Improvement
    • Look beyond individual processes
    • Look at Upstream and Downstream processes
      • That share similar characteristics
        • People
        • Functions
        • Databases
      • Focus on economies of scale
    • Activities when choosing a Value Stream:
      • Identify any immediate customer concerns
      • Perform a work-unit routing analysis
      • Prioritize target value streams
    Visio Value Stream

Process Mapping Home Process Mapping Software

MS Word and MS Excel can both deliver process maps - the standard office application for process maps is MS Visio

There are many specialised process mapping applications available. Please click here for a comparison

WinSPC Analysis

To capture data and conduct statistical analysis on process metrics, particularly in a manufacturing setting invesigate the use of WinSPC

Process Mapping Home Capturing Process Maps

When capturing processes the team needs to capture the As Is State:

  • The As Is state is how the process is currently executed
  • The As Is state is not necessarily the captured process map if it exists
  • The As Is state requires input from all stakeholders, operators and potentially the process value stream
Process Mapping Sessions:
  • Are brainstorming sessions that capture the required process as a map
  • Uses common brainstorming techniques
  • Should include those executing the process
  • Should include stakeholders if a process design session
  • Should have a facilitator and a scribe as resource
  • Should not attempt to capture the process as a standard process map
When capturing processes in a brainstorming session it is helpful to not use a computer. Instead give each resource and asset in the process a different colour post it note.
Post it Notes

Each resource can then write on the post it note the action or decision and place in order. As each resource is in a different colour swimlane maps can be produced electronically after the session.

Steps in Creating a Process Map
  • Select a process
  • Define the process
  • Map the main process steps
  • Define the inputs
  • Map any alternate process steps
  • Map any inspection points
Within the process it is important to define:
  • the output of the process
  • the customers for the output
  • the customer requirements
  • the process participants
  • the process owner
  • the key stakeholders
  • the process boundaries – the first and last steps of the process
  • the inputs to the process and the suppliers of the inputs

Process Mapping Home Storing Process Maps

Some software applications will organise the storage of the process maps as part of their structure and can also link process maps in a chain and hierarchy. Key Document Control Management System (DCMS) elements apply in the storage and retireval of process maps. These elements should include:

  • An agreed folder structure
  • An approval process should ensure all process maps are stored to standard
  • Access should be restricted to approved users for each process
  • Associated data and files should be accessible from/with process map storage
  • Should be stored as a library for change control purposes
Please click for assistance on Process Mapping Facilitation

Process Mapping Home Process Risk and Control

Risk identification in a process is generally identified in the following order:

  • safety and regulatory
  • system/process function failure
  • customer dissatisfaction
  • customer annoyance
Risk identification characteristics matrix

The Organisational Process Characteristics Matrix reveals which processes in the organisation are aligned to safety and regulatory requirements and other key characteristics. It gives the organisation a view into process change risk and where it is affected on internal and external changes. Please click for assistance on Process Risk and Control

Process Mapping Home Associated Process Map Documentation, Metrics and Tools

Documentation

  • Process Definition
  • Process Map
  • Procedure
  • Work Instruction
  • Control Chart Data
Metrics
  • Process Capability
  • Specification Limits
  • Customer Requirements
  • Statistical Analysis
  • Critical to Quality
    • Time
    • Defects
    • Capability
    • Efficiency
    • Process Control Limits
    • Rolled Throughput Yield
Tools
  • Control Charts
  • Characteristics Matrix
  • Lean Management
  • FMEA
  • Poke Yoke
  • The 8 Deadly Wastes
    • TIMWOODS

Process Mapping Home Changing Process Maps

When changing process maps the organisation is looking at the process in the "To Be State"

  • The To Be state is how the process should run in future
  • Should be a efficient as possible
  • Should endeavour to eliminate waste
  • Should be communicated when active in the business
  • Should be accompanied with an appropriate level of training to the roles within the organisation affected by the new or changed process
  • Should communicate change to appropriate external stakeholders

Forthcoming courses

There are currently no upcoming training courses scheduled. We add more courses regularly, so please check back soon.

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